Happy first day of fall! The sun crossed the celestial equator on its way south at 9:49 a.m. (CDT), sending a chill up the spines of those who love summer. Many of us look forward to cooler days and nights and that first frost. Here in Duluth, Minn. leaves began changing as early as the end of August. We’re now well into the color season with every hue from lemon to scarlet to brown falling to the ground.
Tonight all those colorful trees will cast shadows under a first quarter moon. First quarter refers to the moon having completed a quarter of its orbit around the Earth. This takes about 7 days. In another 7 days the half moon will fill out into a full moon. We get a special edition of the full moon this month – the Harvest Moon. I’ll have more on exactly what makes it special early next week.
Don’t pass up the chance to look at the moon through a small telescope over the next few nights. The number of craters visible is incredible.
Let’s return to tonight. The moon will occult the star Mu Sagittarii (Sa-ji-TARE-ee-eye) this evening around 8:20 p.m. (CDT). An occultation is the astronomical term to describe one celestial object covering up another.
Mu is a moderately bright star – magnitude 3.8 – and should be visible next to the moon this evening in binoculars. A telescope will show it plainly. If your sky’s free of haze you may even be able to make out the dim, earthlit half of the moon. Try putting the bright half out of the field of view to see it best.
The fun begins when the moon draws very close to the star. Minutes before the cover-up, you can see the moon move in real time as it moves in for the kill. With just seconds remaining, Mu may seem to hover forever at the precipice, and then – PFFFT! – it’s gone. Whether you’re looking through telescope or binoculars, the star will blink out with surprising suddenness because the moon lacks an atmosphere. If there was air up there, Mu would gradually dim and disappear. Even without special instruments, early astronomers could be certain there was little air on the moon by observing occultations.
Times for the occultation vary depending on where you live. In Duluth, Minn. it happens very close to 8:20 p.m., in Chicago 8:21 p.m. Central time, Atlanta at 9:21 p.m. Eastern time, Denver at 6:53 p.m. Mountain time and LA at 5:15 p.m. Pacific time. Depending on your latitude, Mu will disappear at a slightly different spot along the moon’s left or eastern edge.
In the northwestern U.S., the star will just miss the moon, appearing to graze its northern limb. If you’re keen to observe the event, write to me in the Comments section with the name of the nearest medium-sized or large city to your home, and I’ll send you back a time.