This weekend we looked at Saturn from the unique perspective called opposition, when a planet is directly opposite the sun in the sky. Seen from space, Saturn is lined up with Earth on the same side as the sun. Seen from the ground, the planet rises at sunset, remains visible all night and doesn’t set until the sun rises the next morning. Talk about opposites – the two bodies can’t get any farther apart.
Opposition only happens with the outer planets – Mars through Neptune. Since they’re farther from the sun than Earth, they can periodically sneak up behind us. Mercury and Venus, being closer to the sun, can’t take a walk around our backside and therefore never appear opposite the sun in the sky. Traditionally, the planets that orbit beyond Earth are called “superior” while Mercury and Venus are “inferior” or inner planets.
As described in this Friday’s blog, our opposition perspective on Saturn affords a unique view of its rings. For a few days around this time, the rings become considerably brighter than the body of the planet. The photo illustrates it dramatically, but you can also see it with your own eyeballs as amateur astronomer Richard Keen of Coal Creek Canyon, Colorado did through his 12.5-inch telescope this weekend:
“The rings were markedly brighter than the ball of the planet, while usually they’re about the same brightness. The contrast lines between where ball of the planet hides the far side ring, and between the near side ring and the planet, were sharper, too.”
Several factors contribute to the brightening, but a key one is called the opposition effect. When we face with our backs to the sun, objects in front of us are squarely lit by sunshine streaming over our shoulders. Any shadows cast by rocks, bumps or irregularities are hidden directly behind the objects. Without shadows to ‘darken’ the scene, the view directly in front of us peaks in light intensity.
Something similar happens when we look at Saturn’s rings during the days leading up to and after opposition. The sun streams past the Earth (our shoulders) and shines directly onto the ring particles. With their shadows temporarily hidden, the rings surge in brightness compared to the planet’s globe.
This brightness enhancement was first studied by German astronomer
Hugo von Seeliger (1849-1924) who proposed that the disappearance of shadows as the cause for the rapid brightening of the rings. Seeliger saw it as confirmation that the rings were made of individual pieces rather than a series of solid disks.
The opposition surge is also the primary reason the full moon is so much brighter than the moon the night before or after.
Saturn comes to opposition once a year, but the full moon is at opposition (opposite the sun in the sky) about once a month. During the hours before full phase, it brightens by more than 40% and fades an equal amount hours after full.
What’s going on? Like the ice crystals in Saturn’s rings, the moon dust and grit hide shadows best when the sun shines down squarely upon them. Also any divots or pits on the moon’s surface that might otherwise be filled with shadow are fully – if briefly – illuminated by sunlight.
While “shadow hiding” is an important reason for these surges, the phenomenon of coherent backscatter also plays a role in the moon, Saturn’s rings and other planets and asteroids with rocky, dusty surfaces. When a light source shines at a very direct angle at material made of a multitude of tiny, dust-like particles, multiple reflections combine to produce a single brighter reflection directly back at the observer.
So now I’m eager for clear skies to see all this for myself. Hopefully, you’ll have a chance to do the same.