Tomorrow morning before dawn will be the best time to catch the very first meteor shower of the new year. The Quadrantids, named for the one-time constellation Quadrans Muralis, located below the handle of the Big Dipper, is one the most reliable showers of 2014. While the constellation’s now obsolete and erased from modern sky maps, its name lives on in fiery sparks of meteoric light. Pity the shower rains down at the coldest time of the year.
Ideally, you might see from 60-200 “Quads” per hour, when the shower’s very sharp peak coincides with the radiant being high in the northeastern sky for your location. This year the peak happens around 1:30 p.m. January 3, not exactly ideal for North and South American observers but perfect for folks living in the Middle East and Russia. Numbers will probably be less than half that for western hemisphere skywatchers.
Don’t let it bring you down. We’ll still see a good show tomorrow morning between the hours of 2 and 6 a.m as meteors emanate from the shower radiant located about a fist below the end of the Big Dipper’s handle in the northeastern sky. No moon will cast its glare to compromise the view. I’d suggest dressing warmly and relaxing in a sleeping bag on a reclining chair. Face to the east or north for the best view. The later you’re up, the more Quads you’ll see as the clock ticks closer to the daytime shower maximum.
Quadrantids are slower than other major showers like the August Perseids and December Geminids with speeds around 25 miles per second (41 km/sec). You’ll know you’re seeing a Quad if you can trace its trail back to the northeastern sky below the Dipper.
Peter Jenniskens, senior research scientist at NASA’s SETI Institute, traces the Quads’ origin to the asteroid 2003 EH1, a likely extinct or occasionally active comet. Its orbital characteristics agree well with the paths of our cold weather friends.