Halloween — the perfect time to meet the Witch Head, the sky’s scariest nebula

The Witch Head Nebula is a large, faint interstellar dust cloud in the constellation Eridanus illuminated by nearby Rigel (at right), the 7th brightest star in the sky. Click photo for a hi-res image. Credit: SSRO

Never mind the nature of dark matter or the ultimate fate of the universe, let’s address a more important question this Halloween. What’s the scariest nebula in the sky?

The Witch Head Nebula is a large object about 2 degrees across in the constellation Eridanus the River not far from Rigel in the leg of Orion the Hunter. It’s an excellent example of a “reflection nebula” or cloud of dust that reflects and scatters the light from a star. This map shows the sky at midnight tonight. An 8-inch telescope or larger will show the object on a dark, moonless night. Source: Stellarium

I’ve seen a few in the flesh and perused the coffee table tomes and come up with my offering – the Witch Head. Named for its resemblance to a wicked witch with a crooked nose and hollow eyes, she appears to be calling out to Rigel. Astronomers call the visage IC 2118, and you’ll find her craggy profile in a bend in the constellation Eridanus the River around midnight on Halloween.

In this close-up taken in infrared light by NASA’s WISE spacecraft we see billowy clouds of glowing dust. Some of the light from the Witch Head comes from the glow of newly-forming stars buried deep within the folds of the nebula. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Witch Head is a 50-light-year long interstellar dust cloud some 900 light years from Earth. Light from the enormous and profoundly hot blue-white supergiant star Rigel in Orion’s leg is reflected by the tiny dust grains composing the cloud. The grains are similar in size to the wavelength of blue light (475 billionths of a meter) and efficiently scatter and reflect that color across the length and breadth of the cloud while allowing the greens, oranges and reds to pass on through. Both the sky and a cloud of cigarette haze appear blue for the same reason. In the case of a blue sky, molecules of nitrogen and oxygen do the scattering.

We humans have a fabulous ability, called pareidolia, to see patterns and familiar shapes in randomness and abstraction. So it’s no problem to conjure a face from random filaments and puffs of dust touched by starlight. As for the origin of the dust, we look to supernovae and aging stars, which seed space with cosmic dust composed of silicon carbide, carbon grains, water ice and silicates. These bits of stellar shrapnel gather into immense molecular clouds over time and collapse when acted upon by other forces like a supernova explosion.

Stars form when denser regions of dark dust within cosmic clouds collapse under gravity resulting in a hot, dense core (future star) surrounded by a rotating disk. Materia in the disk can further condense into planets. Credit: Wikipedia

Not all of the light we see from the Witch Head bounces off dust grains – some comes from within. Tucked inside the witch’s cloudy recesses, denser pockets of gas and dust are collapsing under the force of gravity into brand new stars at this very moment. One day in the far future the nebula will sparkle with starlight and the dust will disperse. Let’s hope future generations of astronomers recall the ancient era when it was known as the Witch Head and carry the name forward as the Witch Head star cluster.

Happy Halloween!

Earth and Moon captured together in amazing new photo

Chang’e 5 took this splendid photo of Earth and Moon together while it passed over the lunar far side on October 28, 2014. The Moon reflects far less light than Earth and appears darker.  Click to grab a large version. Credit: CNSA / Xinhua News Agency

A friend alerted me to this wonderful photo of Earth and Moon in the same single image taken by China’s Chang’e 5 lunar test vehicle. The spacecraft is conducting an 8-day mission to the Moon and back to refine the technology needed for a planned sample return mission in 2017. Launched on October 23, this is China’s fourth volley to the Moon; the spacecraft will return to Earth on November 1 according to Xinhua News.

View of Earth taken by the Chang’e 5 test vehicle on October 28 after rounding the far side of the Moon. Australia is easy to see in the clearing. Credit: CNSA / Xinhua News Agency

As it swung high above the far side of the Moon – the hidden half of the lunar globe out of sight from Earth – the solar array monitoring camera on the craft snapped this incredible image. While not the first ever taken of the pair, it’s one of the best composed images and possibly the first to clearly feature the lunar far side along with Earth. You can easily see how much more cratered the Moon’s hidden hemisphere is. And that dark splotch? That’s Mare Moscoviense (Sea of Moscow), one of the very few dark maria or seas on the far side.

View of the Moon by Chang’e 5 on October 28 shows the dark lunar “sea” called Mare Marginis. This patch is visible along the western edge of the moon from Earth. Credit: CNSA / Xinhua News Agency

Chang’e 5 did not enter lunar orbit but kept its camera humming to shoot separate close-ups of Earth and Moon. Like seeing Earth and Moon from afar? Check these out:


Earth and Moon dance a pirouette in these images taken by the Jupiter-bound spacecraft Juno on Oct. 9, 2013

The European Space Agency’s Mars Express captured this image of Earth and the Moon on July 3, 2005 when it was 5 million miles ( 8 million km) away. Credit: ESA

Earth and Moon in 1992 as Galileo photographed the duo on its way to Jupiter. Credit: NASA

Earth is the brightest “star” in Mars’ western evening sky as seen and photographed by the Curiosity Rover on Jan. 31, 2014. Credit: NASA

A single frame from high-definition video of the full Earth over the lunar limb taken by Japan’s Kaguya spacecraft on April 6, 2008. Credit: JAXA/NHK

Earth and Moon from Mars, imaged by Mars Global Surveyor on May 8, 2003. Credit: NASA

Earth rises over the barren lunar landscape photographed by the Apollo 8 crew on December 24, 1968. Credit: NASA

Earth and Moon become a single dot in this photo taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft from a distance of 4 billion miles (6.4 billion km) on February 14, 1990. Credit: NASA/JPL

Found! Fresh moon crater from LADEE spacecraft impact

Before and after photos show the new crater blasted out by the impact of the LADEE spacecraft. It’s the white spot a short distance to the upper right of the prominent crater in the center and measures less than 10 feet (3-m) across.  Credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University

I’d love to see that ad on Craigslist. Using before and after photos taken by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), Mark Robinson, LROC principal investigator, discovered a tiny crater within one-fifth of a mile (300-m) of the predicted impact zone. And I do mean tiny. The impact of the refrigerator-sized spacecraft at the relatively leisurely speed of 3,800 miles an hour (1,699 meters per second) excavated a hole under 10 feet across or as big as your bathroom.

LRO close up photo of the LADEE impact site on the eastern rim of Sundman V crater. The bright area highlights what has changed between the time of the two images, specifically the impact point and the ejecta. The ejecta pattern spreads to the northwest, consistent with the direction the spacecraft was traveling when it smacked into the surface. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University

NASA’s LADEE or Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Explorer’s mission studied dust hovering in the Moon’s extremely rarefied atmosphere called the exosphere. Much of the dust sputters off the surface during meteorite impacts, but some may be lofted into the sky by electrostatic forces active when the sun rises along the day-night borderline called the terminator. As the probe used up the last of its fuel, engineers lowered its orbit to study the lunar environment in ever greater detail. Variations in lunar topography and gravity soon brought it crashing to the surface on April 17 this year on the farside of the Moon.

LADEE only had so much fuel to conduct operations at the moon. When that was used up, the mission was complete. The vending-machine-sized probe broke apart as it heated up upon impact. Credit: NASA Ames/Dana Berry

The small size of the LADEE crater relates to the relatively slow impact speed (meteorites strike at a much higher velocity) as well as the craft’s small size and low density. To find it, investigators had to develop special software that compared before and after images to find the slightest changes between them. The impact popped into view much the same way before and after images of the sky are compared to detect moving asteroids.

Despite the crater’s tiny dimension, the crashing spacecraft managed to eject a plume of bright lunar dust 656-984 feet (200-300 meters) from the impact site. Future astronauts will likely find metal shrapnel from the probe mingled with lunar dust downstream from the impact.

“I’m happy that the LROC team was able to confirm the LADEE impact point,” said Butler Hine, LADEE project manager at Ames Research Center in California. “It really helps the LADEE team to get closure and know exactly where the product of their hard work wound up.”

In a memorable mess of an impact that will remain visible for millions of years.

Antares rocket ferrying cargo to space station explodes!


The Antares rocket explodes on takeoff around 6:22 p.m. EDT this evening from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.

Earlier this evening, Orbital Sciences Antares rocket exploded just seconds after launch. It was carrying the Cygnus cargo ship bound for the International Space Station (ISS). No one was injured in the blast as the rocket fell back to Earth in fireball of flame.

Cygnus contained more than 5,000 pounds of supplies for the ISS including science experiments, experiment hardware, spare parts, and food. Orbital Sciences contracts with NASA for supply runs to the space station. This was to be its third cargo delivery. The cause of the explosion is not yet known.

King-size sunspot slip-slides away

Active Region 2192 will soon pass beyond the western limb to the farside of the Sun. While it’s size has decreased slightly, it still harbors a complex magnetic field and potential for “farewell flare” or two. This photo was taken today October 28th. Credit: NASA/SDO

Big, attention-getting and explosive, sunspot region 2192 will make a final bow before departing for the farside of the Sun in the next couple days. Many of us grabbed a souvenir photo of the giant spot during last week’s partial solar eclipse. Given its size and complexity there’s an excellent chance it will return in mid-November when the Sun carries it around for Act II.

The most recent large flare from Region 2192 was a powerful X2-class on October 27th. This photo shows the view in ultraviolet light from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. Credit: NASA

Despite shooting off 5 X-class and 12 M-class flares, none of them lofted a coronal mass ejection (CME) toward the Earth, the reason why there have been no significant auroras during its transit. CMEs are enormous clouds of subatomic particles – mostly protons and electrons – that can strongly interact with Earth’s magnetic field to do everything from damaging satellite electronics and poorly protected power grids to producing spectacular displays of northern lights.

Explosive, particle-releasing flares from region 2192 as it rounds the Sun’s western limb can spiral back directly to Earth along the Sun’s magnetic field lines like a curve ball. Credit: Nathan Schwadron, UNH-EOS

But don’t say ‘bye-bye’ to 2192 just yet. According to Dr. Tony Phillips at Spaceweather, the western limb of the Sun is well-connected to Earth. Should the giant spot flare in the next couple days, particles could spiral back along the Sun’s magnetic field lines directly our way. There’s hope yet for auroras.

Fleet of foot Mercury appears at dawn

Mercury comes into good view the remainder of October and the first week of November low in the eastern sky during morning twilight. This map shows the sky from the central U.S. (Champaign, Ill. in particular) tomorrow morning October 28 about 40 minutes before sunrise. Also shown is the planet’s orbital path in the sky and the bright star Arcturus, which you can use to help you find the planet. Source: Stellarium

Mercury is the solar system’s hot sports car. Not only is it the smallest planet, but it rips around the Sun once every 88 days, faster than any of the others. That’s 4 revolutions for every one the Earth makes. As you read this, Earth’s toting you around the Sun at 66,600 mph. Mercury’s got the pedal to the metal at nearly106,000 mph.

Now through the early November you have a chance to watch this speed demon in morning twilight. Six times a year the fleet planet reaches greatest elongation from the Sun, when it’s highest above the horizon during twilight and easiest to spot. This season that date is November 1st, but you can look for Mercury anytime now through about Nov. 10th.

Mercury has phases like the Moon because of the changing angle it makes to the Sun as viewed from Earth during its 88-day orbit. The dates show inferior conjunction between Earth and Sun (Oct. 16), greatest western elongation (Nov. 1), superior conjunction (Dec. 8) and greatest eastern elongation (Jan 14) when the planet returns to good evening sky viewing. Credit: Bob King

Unlike the outer planets, which orbit beyond the Earth, Mercury orbits between our planet and the Sun. That’s why it never strays far from the Sun in the sky and only puts in an appearance after sunset at dusk or before sunrise at dawn. Because it’s in such an orbital hurry, we usually only get to see the planet for a couple weeks during each favorable elongation.

Mercury shows phases like the Moon. This is approximately how the planet will appear in the next few mornings. Source: Stellarium

To the eye, Mercury looks like a fairly bright star (magnitude 0 and brightening to -0.7 in the next two weeks), but through a small telescope it shows phases just like the Moon and Venus.

Right now it’s a fat croissant but it will fill out and brighten in the days ahead.

Take advantage of the late morning sunrises in the days before we lose Daylight Saving Time to find Mercury at a reasonable hour (around 6:40-7:15 a.m. from many locations).  Look “one fist” above the eastern horizon about 45 minutes before sunrise.

 

House-sized asteroid makes close Earth flyby Monday / See dawn’s ghostly finger

Gianluca Masi used a 17-inch telescope to track the motion of asteroid 2014 UF56 on October 25. The small space rock will pass just 102,000 miles from Earth Monday afternoon CDT. Credit: Gianluca Masi

Discovered only yesterday, Earth-approaching 2014 UF56 will violate our planet’s personal space on Monday October 27th. At around 4 p.m. Central Daylight Time the ~45-foot-wide (14-m) boulder will tumble by at less the half the distance of the Moon.

With 90% of near-Earth asteroids larger than 0.6 miles (1 km) discovered, surveys are now focusing on finding 90% of objects larger than 460 feet (140-m). We have to take it a step at a time because the total number of near-Earth asteroids is in the millions. That’s why objects like 2014 UF56 pop up regularly in surveys each month. Every discovery adds one more piece to the grand puzzle that astronomers have been painstakingly assembling since the very first Earth-approaching asteroid, 433 Eros, was discovered in 1898.

The speedy boulder was found only yesterday. Despite passing so close to Earth, few if any of us will see the flyby with our eyes in a telescope. At brightest, 2014 UF56 will only reach magnitude +16, the limit for a 16-inch telescope, as it zips from Scutum through Capricornus. But you’ll be able to watch its mad dash all the same. Gianluca Masi, an Italian astrophysicist, will have his observatory open for business and stream the close passage live on his Virtual Telescope Project site starting at 2 p.m. CDT (7 p.m. UT) Monday October 27.

A cone of soft light tilts up from the eastern horizon about 2 hours before sunrise on October 22. The planet Jupiter is seen near its tip. Called zodiacal light, it’s sunlight reflecting off dust left by passing comets and asteroid collisions. Now through about November 4 is the best time to see the sight for northern hemisphere observers. Credit: Bob King

Earlier this week I went out before dawn to watch the Orionids, an annual meteor shower that originates from bits of dust and rock shed by Halley’s Comet. Every year during the third week of October we encounter Halley’s dregs and watch them fire up as meteors when they strike the atmosphere 70 miles over our heads. While only a few streaked the sky that morning, my outing coincided with the best display of another much larger phenomenon intimately tied to dust left behind by passing comets – the zodiacal light.

I look forward every fall to seeing the subtle beauty of this large, finger-shaped glow poking up from the eastern horizon. For northern hemisphere observers, it’s best visible before the start of dawn or about 2 hours to 90 minutes before sunrise. Then it towers more than halfway up in the eastern sky titled at about a 60-degree angle to the horizon.

The zodiacal light cone, which is centered on the Sun’s path through the zodiac called the ecliptic, tilts upward in late October reaching up to and even beyond the bright planet Jupiter. Credit: Bob King with Stellarium

To see the zodiacal light, you’ll need a dark, light pollution-free sky view of the eastern sky. and the will to arise “in the darkest hour”. It’s broadest and brightest near its base – similar to the summer Milky Way – but fades and tapers as you lift your gaze toward the bright planet Jupiter, now stationed near its tip.

The phenomenon gets its name from the “zodiac”, a band of a dozen constellations the Sun, Moon and planets pass through during their monthly, yearly and multi-year travels across the sky. When a comet’s orbit takes it within the inner solar system, the Sun vaporizes a portion of its ice, releasing dust and small rocks into space to create the comet’s coma and tail. Much of this dust is left behind in and near the mid-plane of the solar system where it forms a cloud of debris. Illuminated by scattered sunlight, we see it as the skinny-tipped finger of zodiacal light.

Crossed swords of light! The zodiacal light (left) meets the Milky Way in this beautiful image taken on October 1 this year. Though they’re similarly bright and large, the zodiacal light has a smooth texture without the clumpiness that characterizes the Milky Way. Credit: Damian Peach

During fall mornings and spring evenings, northern hemisphere skywatches see that mid-plane tilted up at a steep angle, high above the horizon hazes that would otherwise block the light from view. That’s what makes now an ideal time to set out for a look.

Much of the glowing comet dust will spiral into to the Sun over time and vaporize; a constant stream of comets, old and new, keeps it replenished. Near as I can figure, the zodiacal light is the single, largest visible structure in the solar system.  And to think it’s built of something as insubstantial as comet dust.

Moon gives us a wink / Mars near and afar

Tonight (Oct. 25) the thin lunar crescent appears again at dusk low in the southwestern sky near the planet Saturn. This map shows the sky about 20 minutes past sunset. Source: Stellarium

After a splendid eclipse performance, the Moon returns at dusk this evening low in the southwestern sky after sunset. Reborn as a waxing crescent, it will slip away from the Sun in the coming days and gently light the night.

For those who like something much more challenging than spying the Moon, try finding Saturn about 3 degrees to its west. Binoculars required!

India’s Mars Orbiter tweeted this full-color photo of the planet earlier this month. It features the hemisphere of Mars rich in ancient volcanoes, the brown, circular structures that look like anthills.  The largest, Olympus Mons, is visible at far left center. The planet’s north polar region is covered in clouds. Credit: ISRO

Farther east, Mars, though low, is still an easy catch with the naked eye. Most of us gave up looking at it in a telescope several months ago, since the planet has shrunk to 5.6″ in diameter, not quite twice as big as Uranus’ apparent size. Mars is far from Earth and presently in in its “orange blip” phase. Even at 300x magnification, such a tiny disk shows little detail.

Little Phobos, only 10 by 14 by 11 miles (17 by 22 by 18 km), looks tiny indeed against the backdrop of the mother planet. Credit: ISRO

No matter. So many space probes now orbit the planet, close-up views are available at the click of a mouse. The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) has sent back some excellent color images of the planet recently including one showing Mars’ small moon Phobos in orbit.


Photos taken by the Mars Curiosity rover on June 28, 2013 show the moon Phobos rising in the Martian sky. White dots are hot pixels and flashes are cosmic rays. 

Another view of Phobos taken by ESA’s Mars Express. This small, dark moon orbits 5,826 miles (9,380 km) above the planet. Credit: NASA

Pew! Rosetta’s comet has bad case of gas, halitosis

Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko’s jets of gas and dust shoot high above its surface into space in this photo taken on September 10 and released this week. As the comet slowly approaches the sun, scientists are seeing these dusty geysers all over the comet, not just the neck region. Click to enlarge. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/ INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

I count at least 20 individual jets in this recently released photo of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. No doubt about it. As the comet wends its way toward the Sun, there’s been a clear increase in outgassing. Early photos showed several jets – pillars or geysers of rapidly vaporizing ice laden with dust and organic compounds – leaving the narrow neck of the comet. Scientists are now seeing jets everywhere on the icy nucleus. Like a bad pipe, the comet is springing leaks all over!

Close up of the comet taken on October 20 from a distance of just 4.6 miles (7.4 km). The frame is about 2,116 feet (645-m) across. Click to see a larger version worthy of a few minutes of armchair exploration. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

“At this point, we believe that a large fraction of the illuminated comet’s surface is displaying some level of activity,” says OSIRIS scientist Jean-Baptiste Vincent from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany.

Photographing jets means the much brighter comet nucleus has to be overexposed, the reason all the detail is washed out. 67P is now 292 million miles (470 million km) from the Sun or about three times Earth’s distance. Based on past comet behavior, jet activity should kick into high gear when it comes within 186 million (300 million km) of the Sun. That will happen in March 2015.

Another view of the comet from the same 4.5 mile distance. The frame is also 2,116 feet (645-m) across. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

The material shot out by the comet goes to create a mini-atmosphere around it called a coma. Since early August, the Rosetta Orbiter Sensor for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) has been ‘sniffing the fumes’ of 67P/C-G with its two mass spectrometers. This device identifies molecules produced by the comet by how much their paths are deflected by a magnetic field generated by the instrument. Lighter particles are deflected more than heavier ones.

It appears Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko has a bad case of halitosis. If you could be there to sniff it yourself, you’d recoil at the smell of rotten eggs mixed with ammonia (think soiled kitty litter) and the pungent pickle tang of formaldehyde. Here’s how Kathrin Altwegg, principal investigator for ROSINA, put it:

 

High resolution mass spectrum from ROSINA taken on October 10 at a distance of  6.2 miles from the comet center. The plot shows the detection of hydrogen sulphide and the heavier isotope of sulphur, 34S. The plot shows intensity vs. the mass-to-charge ratio. Image courtesy K. Altwegg, University of Bern

“The perfume of 67P/C-G is quite strong, with the odor of rotten eggs (hydrogen sulphide), horse stable (ammonia), and the pungent, suffocating odour of formaldehyde. This is mixed with the faint, bitter, almond-like aroma of hydrogen cyanide. Add some whiff of alcohol (methanol) to this mixture, paired with the vinegar-like aroma of sulphur dioxide and a hint of the sweet aromatic scent of carbon disulphide, and you arrive at the ‘perfume’ of our comet.”

Using ROSINA, here’s a list of what’s been detected as of October 23.

Water (H2O)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Ammonia (NH3)
Methane (CH4)
Methanol (CH3OH)
Formaldehyde (CH2O)
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
Carbon disulphide (CS2)

The first three ingredients on the list make up most of the volatile (prone to vaporize) portion of the the comet. Wouldn’t it be nice to have a chunk of 67P in a bottle where you could lift the lid and take a sniff now and again? Naw, come to think, my wife wouldn’t want that in the house.

Moon bites sun, mankind cheers!

The sun sets while still in eclipse as seen from Duluth, Minn. Thursday evening October 23. Credit: Bob King

I hope you all got at least a glimpse at the partial solar eclipse this afternoon. The weather cleared off just in time here for a beautiful view from over Superior Bay in Duluth, Minn. As expected, many of us couldn’t take our eyes off the magnificent sunspot group.

Sometimes clouds can be your friend. Credit: Stuart McDaniel

Although we looked at the eclipse through the telescope and camera back, my friend and I agreed the best views were at 1x magnification using nothing more than mylar and welder’s glass. Both the nibbling moon and sunspots were easy to see, and without a frame around the scene, the Sun felt closer, more natural.  Because we watched from an open site on a bay, dappled sunlight on water added a nice touch.

Fr. Larry Regynski’s niece creates pinholes with her hand and uses it to project crescent suns on the wall.  Credit: Fr. Larry Regynski

65% of the Sun was covered for us, and while Sun brightness normally drops off near sunset, there was no question that everything around us looked dimmer than normal with half the Sun gone.

Here are a few photos to enjoy. If you took one you’d like to share, please e-mail it to me at rking@duluthnews.com and I’ll put it up on the blog.

Still keeping an eye on possible auroras tonight. Right now, all is quiet, but I suspect that big sunspot group sooner or later will crank up the heat.

Eclipse season is over now – the next of note for the Americas will be a total lunar eclipse on April 4th next year.

This is how the eclipse looked in a small 3.5-inch refracting telescope. Credit: Bob King

Amateur astronomer Mike Sangster holds up a photographic solar filter over the eclipsed sun Thursday. Credit: Bob King

Gorgeous! Dimmed by haze and high clouds, the eclipsed sun sets in the west Thursday evening. Credit: Mike Sangster

Me with my head stuck in a telescope … as usual. To observe and photograph the eclipse I used a 94mm refractor fitted with a photographic solar filter. Most exposures were shot at 1/4000-second at f/14. Credit: Mike Sangster

Sweet sunset shot in Owatonna, Minn. taken with a 210mm telephoto at ISO 100, f/18 and 1/4000-second. Credit: Gary Johnson

Mike Sangster crossed one hand over the over to create small gaps that acted as pinhole projectors. He managed 3 crescent suns on the side of his car. Credit: Bob King

Two crescent suns almost lost in the woods. Left: From Duluth’s Skyline Parkway near Bardon Peak from Art Johnston. Right: From the Pike Lake boat ramp taken by Guy Sander