Rosetta captures spectacular photos of Philae drifting above comet

These incredible images show the  Philae lander’s journey as it approached and then rebounded from its first touchdown. You can even see the landing pad impressions (top inset). Pictures taken by the Rosetta OSIRIS camera 9.6 miles (15.5 km) from the surface. Click to enlarge. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

Just amazing! And a little sad, too. It’s Philae coming in for its first landing attempt on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. You’ll recall the lander touched down without the use of its reverse thruster or the harpoons to fix it to the surface. Given the near zero-G gravity at the comet, Philae immediately rebounded to the tune of 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) and set off on a brand new path high above the comet. Rosetta was there to see it happen.

Close-up of the first touchdown site before Philae landed (left) and after clearly shows the impressions of its three footpads in the comet’s dusty soil. Times are CST. Philae’s 3.3 feet (1-m) across. Credit: ESA et. all

Rosetta captured Philae’s descent (from left to right) to the comet, the first touchdown point (top inset) and subsequent rebound and drifting off to the right or east. The craft was moving only at a walking pace (1.6 feet/sec) at the time of first contact with the comet. According to the Rosetta blog:

“The mosaic comprises a series of images captured by Rosetta’s OSIRIS camera over a 30 minute period spanning the first touchdown. The time of each of image is marked on the corresponding insets and is in Greenwich Mean Time. A comparison of the touchdown area shortly before and after first contact with the surface is also provided.”

The Rosetta spacecraft spotted Philae and its shadow shortly after the lander touched down and stirred up some dust (dark spot in larger red circle) at 9:30 a.m. (CST). The Philae image was shot five minutes later. Credit: SA/Rosetta/NAVCAM; pre-processed by Mikel Canania

We still don’t know exactly where the lander is, but after two bounces, it finally settled down for good at 11:32 a.m. (CST) a considerable distance east of the original landing site. Expect photos soon of Philae. Mission controllers are hard at work combining the CONSERT ranging data with OSIRIS high resolution and navigation camera images from the orbiter along with photos from Philae’s ROLIS and CIVA cameras to reveal to lander’s location.

Note: The two identical times in the top inset photos are correct even though they both show the same time. When the 15:43 picture was taken, Philae had moved on, but the impressions of its footpads remained.

Philae performs handstand on comet, sends back first panorama

The first panoramic image from the surface of a comet taken by the lander Philae. It’s a 360º view around the point of final touchdown. The three feet of Philae’s landing gear can be seen in some of the frames. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/Philae/CIVA

Beware small comets! Their lack of gravity can make landing hell. The Philae lander finally did settle down on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, but only after two tries. It attempted to touch down just a few hundred feet from the original planned site but with harpoons and rocket thrusters that failed to fire, there was no way for the probe to anchor itself. Instead it dropped to the surface and bounced straight back up into space a full kilometer (0.6 miles) above the comet.

Philae is superimposed on top of the panoramic image. The lander team believes it’s tipped up on its side. Credit: ESA

There it hovered for two hours until dropping down again and rebounding again about 1.5 inches (3 cm) high. In the incredibly low gravity field of the comet, Philae hovered for seven minutes! Then it finally came to rest tipped up on its side in a “handstand” position with one of its legs sticking straight up into outer space.

Stephan Ulamec, Philae Lander manager, describes where the craft landed in a press briefing today. It first touched down in the small red square at left, but then bounced off the comet and settled over two hours later somewhere inside the blue diamond. Credit: ESA

Scientists still hope to figure out a way to right the lander. As you try to make sense of the panorama, keep that in mind. In spite of its awkward stance, Philae’s still able to do a surprising amount of good science. But trouble looms. The craft landed in the shadow of a cliff, blocking sunlight to its solar panels which are used to charge its battery. Philae has one day of full power, which means tomorrow’s a critical day. If the battery runs too low, the probe will go into hibernation mode. The lander team are going to try and nudge Philae into the sunlight by operating the moving instrument called MUPUS tonight.

Philae is that little blip as photographed by Rosetta during the craft’s descent to the comet yesterday. Credit: ESA

Let’s wrap it up with a musical tribute to Rosetta and its mission. Somehow this comet landing, a major achievement despite its minor flaws, deserves a tribute in sound.


Rosetta’s Waltz by Vangelis

 

We’re on the comet, baby! Philae scores a touchdown

Rosetta team members, including  Flight Director Andrea Accomazzo (left), react to the first signal received from the Philae lander after its successful touchdown on Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko earlier this morning. Credit: ESA

Around 9:37 a.m. (CST) Philae successfully landed on craggy comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The first signal, a voice from another world, arrived at 10:05. While the lander reached the surface in good health and continues to send telemetry, a small problem cropped up. The two harpoons that would anchor the craft to the comet failed to fire.

Check out this James Bond-style Swiss Army knife of a lander. Each instrument includes a short description. To read clearly, click for a large version. Credit: ESA

Right now, mission control is considering whether to re-fire them as well as figure out why they didn’t fire in the first place. In the comet’s low gravity, it’s important that Philae be sitting stably. Just think what would happen if a nearby jet erupted or ice began to vaporize around or under the craft? Weighing only a gram, Philae might easily tip over.

Here we come! The photo was taken by Philae at 8:38 a.m. (CST) when it was just 1.8 miles (3 km) above the comet. Credit: ESA/ESA/Rosetta/Philae/ROLIS/DLR

Hopefully we’ll see that first panoramic landscape photo soon. In the meantime, scientists held a press conference this afternoon to share first results as well as some of the troubles the lander faces.

Although Philae landed right on target and is gathering scientific data at this very moment, there have been problems with the radio link. Communications drop in and out for some as-yet unexplained reason. We know that neither the top rocket thruster (used to push the probe to the surface) nor the harpoons fired to anchor the craft to the comet’s surface. The data even seem to indicate that the lander may have even lifted off the ground and landed again:

Just to give you a flavor for the rugged landscape Philae was headed toward earlier today, this photo was taken by Rosetta at an altitude of 4.8 miles (7.7 km) from the comet’s surface. Credit: ESA

“Maybe today we didn’t just land once. We landed twice!” said Stephan Ulamec, Philae Lander Manager. Much is still preliminary, which is why the agency’s scientists are hard at work on the problem. Another live webcast is scheduled tomorrow at 7 a.m. (CST).

Live updates can be had on Twitter and the Rosetta website.

Philae descends to the comet, landing expected soon

The “farewell photo” taken by the Philae lander as it departed Rosetta around 2:30 a.m. (CST) today. It shows the one of the solar arrays on the spacecraft. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/Philae/CIVA

So far, so good. The European Space Agency’s Philae lander, a box of science instruments the size of a dishwasher, is now free-floating to the surface of Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and expected to touch down shortly. Lots more updates coming! Be sure to also check the mission’s Twitter feed.

The lander with its legs popped open photographed during its descent to the comet by Rosetta. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for Rosetta Team

We land on a comet in 10 days

On November 12, Philae will land near this spot on Comet 67P/C-G. Sizes on some boulders are shown for scale. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team

Dreams are the start of everything. But realizing one requires hard work, determination and occasionally some hard cash. Here’s an audacious dream: Let’s send a spaceship to orbit a comet and land a robotic photographer-chemist-geologist on its surface.

We pull back from the comet in this much wider view of the landing site region. It’s tricky to tell but the front lobe or “head” is in the foreground; the larger lobe in the background. Credit: ESA/Rosetta

In just 10 days, on November 12th at 2:35 in the morning (CST), the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft will dispatch Philae to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimemnko. The washing machine-sized lander will drop from a height of 14 miles (22.5 km) and land at “Site J” on the dusty surface of the smaller of the comet’s twin heads.

Rosetta directs Philae to its landing site on November 12. Credit: ESA–C. Carreau/ATG medialab

Meanwhile, Rosetta will be positioned to watch the landing. Looking at the detailed landing site photos reminds us this won’t be easy. While there are relatively smooth areas, boulders are everywhere! You might think that the dust layer is deep on the comet, and that might be true in places. Is there risk that the 220-pound (100 kg) Philae could sink into the dust? Probably not if only because the probe will weigh about as much as a dollar bill in the comet’s extraordinarily low gravity field.


Simulation of Philae landing and working on Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko

That’s exactly why ESA’s outfitting its lander with ice screws and a tool normally used in the whaling industry. Once alighting on the surface, ice screws under each of Philae’s three footpads will attempt to drill into the crust to secure it from floating away. A built-in thruster will then push the lander to the ground as a harpoon connected to a tether is fired beneath the lander to further anchor it.

A 100-meter (328 feet) scale is shown along with a 253-foot long 777 airliner to give you a sense of scale in Philae’s planned landing area. Credits: airplane image by Richard Berry; main photo: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

A dozen instruments with delightful names like CONSERT (will use radio waves to probe the nucleus of the comet), CIVA (panorama and microscopic imaging), Ptolemy (comet gas analyzer) and MUPUS (measure material properties and temperatures at the surface and near-surface) will get to work to build as complete a picture as possible of this 2.5 x 2.8 mile double-headed icy relic of the solar system. For additional information on Philae’s bag of tricks, click HERE.

We’ll have more in the days leading up to the landing and post the first panoramic photos as soon as they’re available.

House-sized asteroid makes close Earth flyby Monday / See dawn’s ghostly finger

Gianluca Masi used a 17-inch telescope to track the motion of asteroid 2014 UF56 on October 25. The small space rock will pass just 102,000 miles from Earth Monday afternoon CDT. Credit: Gianluca Masi

Discovered only yesterday, Earth-approaching 2014 UF56 will violate our planet’s personal space on Monday October 27th. At around 4 p.m. Central Daylight Time the ~45-foot-wide (14-m) boulder will tumble by at less the half the distance of the Moon.

With 90% of near-Earth asteroids larger than 0.6 miles (1 km) discovered, surveys are now focusing on finding 90% of objects larger than 460 feet (140-m). We have to take it a step at a time because the total number of near-Earth asteroids is in the millions. That’s why objects like 2014 UF56 pop up regularly in surveys each month. Every discovery adds one more piece to the grand puzzle that astronomers have been painstakingly assembling since the very first Earth-approaching asteroid, 433 Eros, was discovered in 1898.

The speedy boulder was found only yesterday. Despite passing so close to Earth, few if any of us will see the flyby with our eyes in a telescope. At brightest, 2014 UF56 will only reach magnitude +16, the limit for a 16-inch telescope, as it zips from Scutum through Capricornus. But you’ll be able to watch its mad dash all the same. Gianluca Masi, an Italian astrophysicist, will have his observatory open for business and stream the close passage live on his Virtual Telescope Project site starting at 2 p.m. CDT (7 p.m. UT) Monday October 27.

A cone of soft light tilts up from the eastern horizon about 2 hours before sunrise on October 22. The planet Jupiter is seen near its tip. Called zodiacal light, it’s sunlight reflecting off dust left by passing comets and asteroid collisions. Now through about November 4 is the best time to see the sight for northern hemisphere observers. Credit: Bob King

Earlier this week I went out before dawn to watch the Orionids, an annual meteor shower that originates from bits of dust and rock shed by Halley’s Comet. Every year during the third week of October we encounter Halley’s dregs and watch them fire up as meteors when they strike the atmosphere 70 miles over our heads. While only a few streaked the sky that morning, my outing coincided with the best display of another much larger phenomenon intimately tied to dust left behind by passing comets – the zodiacal light.

I look forward every fall to seeing the subtle beauty of this large, finger-shaped glow poking up from the eastern horizon. For northern hemisphere observers, it’s best visible before the start of dawn or about 2 hours to 90 minutes before sunrise. Then it towers more than halfway up in the eastern sky titled at about a 60-degree angle to the horizon.

The zodiacal light cone, which is centered on the Sun’s path through the zodiac called the ecliptic, tilts upward in late October reaching up to and even beyond the bright planet Jupiter. Credit: Bob King with Stellarium

To see the zodiacal light, you’ll need a dark, light pollution-free sky view of the eastern sky. and the will to arise “in the darkest hour”. It’s broadest and brightest near its base – similar to the summer Milky Way – but fades and tapers as you lift your gaze toward the bright planet Jupiter, now stationed near its tip.

The phenomenon gets its name from the “zodiac”, a band of a dozen constellations the Sun, Moon and planets pass through during their monthly, yearly and multi-year travels across the sky. When a comet’s orbit takes it within the inner solar system, the Sun vaporizes a portion of its ice, releasing dust and small rocks into space to create the comet’s coma and tail. Much of this dust is left behind in and near the mid-plane of the solar system where it forms a cloud of debris. Illuminated by scattered sunlight, we see it as the skinny-tipped finger of zodiacal light.

Crossed swords of light! The zodiacal light (left) meets the Milky Way in this beautiful image taken on October 1 this year. Though they’re similarly bright and large, the zodiacal light has a smooth texture without the clumpiness that characterizes the Milky Way. Credit: Damian Peach

During fall mornings and spring evenings, northern hemisphere skywatches see that mid-plane tilted up at a steep angle, high above the horizon hazes that would otherwise block the light from view. That’s what makes now an ideal time to set out for a look.

Much of the glowing comet dust will spiral into to the Sun over time and vaporize; a constant stream of comets, old and new, keeps it replenished. Near as I can figure, the zodiacal light is the single, largest visible structure in the solar system.  And to think it’s built of something as insubstantial as comet dust.

Pew! Rosetta’s comet has bad case of gas, halitosis

Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko’s jets of gas and dust shoot high above its surface into space in this photo taken on September 10 and released this week. As the comet slowly approaches the sun, scientists are seeing these dusty geysers all over the comet, not just the neck region. Click to enlarge. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/ INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

I count at least 20 individual jets in this recently released photo of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. No doubt about it. As the comet wends its way toward the Sun, there’s been a clear increase in outgassing. Early photos showed several jets – pillars or geysers of rapidly vaporizing ice laden with dust and organic compounds – leaving the narrow neck of the comet. Scientists are now seeing jets everywhere on the icy nucleus. Like a bad pipe, the comet is springing leaks all over!

Close up of the comet taken on October 20 from a distance of just 4.6 miles (7.4 km). The frame is about 2,116 feet (645-m) across. Click to see a larger version worthy of a few minutes of armchair exploration. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

“At this point, we believe that a large fraction of the illuminated comet’s surface is displaying some level of activity,” says OSIRIS scientist Jean-Baptiste Vincent from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany.

Photographing jets means the much brighter comet nucleus has to be overexposed, the reason all the detail is washed out. 67P is now 292 million miles (470 million km) from the Sun or about three times Earth’s distance. Based on past comet behavior, jet activity should kick into high gear when it comes within 186 million (300 million km) of the Sun. That will happen in March 2015.

Another view of the comet from the same 4.5 mile distance. The frame is also 2,116 feet (645-m) across. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

The material shot out by the comet goes to create a mini-atmosphere around it called a coma. Since early August, the Rosetta Orbiter Sensor for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) has been ‘sniffing the fumes’ of 67P/C-G with its two mass spectrometers. This device identifies molecules produced by the comet by how much their paths are deflected by a magnetic field generated by the instrument. Lighter particles are deflected more than heavier ones.

It appears Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko has a bad case of halitosis. If you could be there to sniff it yourself, you’d recoil at the smell of rotten eggs mixed with ammonia (think soiled kitty litter) and the pungent pickle tang of formaldehyde. Here’s how Kathrin Altwegg, principal investigator for ROSINA, put it:

 

High resolution mass spectrum from ROSINA taken on October 10 at a distance of  6.2 miles from the comet center. The plot shows the detection of hydrogen sulphide and the heavier isotope of sulphur, 34S. The plot shows intensity vs. the mass-to-charge ratio. Image courtesy K. Altwegg, University of Bern

“The perfume of 67P/C-G is quite strong, with the odor of rotten eggs (hydrogen sulphide), horse stable (ammonia), and the pungent, suffocating odour of formaldehyde. This is mixed with the faint, bitter, almond-like aroma of hydrogen cyanide. Add some whiff of alcohol (methanol) to this mixture, paired with the vinegar-like aroma of sulphur dioxide and a hint of the sweet aromatic scent of carbon disulphide, and you arrive at the ‘perfume’ of our comet.”

Using ROSINA, here’s a list of what’s been detected as of October 23.

Water (H2O)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Ammonia (NH3)
Methane (CH4)
Methanol (CH3OH)
Formaldehyde (CH2O)
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
Carbon disulphide (CS2)

The first three ingredients on the list make up most of the volatile (prone to vaporize) portion of the the comet. Wouldn’t it be nice to have a chunk of 67P in a bottle where you could lift the lid and take a sniff now and again? Naw, come to think, my wife wouldn’t want that in the house.

Rosetta update Oct. 16 – new selfie, landing site close-up, more great videos

Rosetta’s Philae lander snapped a ‘selfie’ at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from a distance of about 9.9 miles from the surface of the comet. The image was taken on October 7 and captures the side of the Rosetta spacecraft and one of Rosetta’s 46-foot-long (14-m) solar wings, with the comet in the background. Click to enlarge. Copyright: ESA/Rosetta/Philae/CIVA

Scope out these new images from the Rosetta probe now less than a month away from dropping the Philae lander onto Comet 67P C-G’s dusty-icy surface. The first picture was taken by the the landers’ Comet Infrared and Visible Analyzer (CIVA) looking out from Rosetta toward the comet. You might remember Philae’s first selfie back on September 7 taken from 31 miles (50 km) away. This new image brings us to within 9.9 miles (16 km) of the comet’s surface.

The photo’s a composite of two images made with two separate exposures to capture the dark comet and Rosetta insulation (one exposure) and the bright solar array. The image is the last from Philae before the lander separates from Rosetta on November 12 and gently floats down to the comet’s surface.

Not only is the comet larger in the new photo but a very distinct jet of gas of vaporizing ice and dust is visible near the junction of the neck and larger lobe.

A new mosaic image from the Rosetta spacecraft shows Philae’s primary landing site up close. Touchdown is expected at 10 a.m. CST on Nov. 12  Click to enlarge. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

A new mosaic image from Rosetta spacecraft shows Site J, the primary landing site on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for the mission’s Philae lander. Rosetta is the first mission to orbit a comet and to attempt a soft landing on one.

The mosaic comprises two images taken by Rosetta’s OSIRIS narrow-angle camera on Sept. 14, 2014, from a distance of about 19 miles (30 kilometers). The image scale is 1.6 feet (0.5 meters) per pixel. The red ellipse is centered on the landing site and is approximately 1,600 feet (500-m) in diameter or a third of a mile. That’s just a walk around the block!


New video from Mattias Malmer titled “Rising over the edge” – A synthetic 3D view of 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko October 8

On November 12, the Rosetta spacecraft will release Philae at 3:03 a.m. Central Standard Time (9:03 a.m. Greenwich Time); 7 hours later it will land at Site J at around 10 a.m. CST (4 p.m. Greenwich).


Cheops Ascent by Mattias Malmer

If you like that video, here’s another in 3D (use red-blue anaglyph glasses to see best). Cheops is the name of the boulder in the photo located on the neck of the comet. It’s about 148-feet (48-m) across. The “synthetic” in the video titles refers to Malmer’s method creating them. He takes real images and digitally drapes them on a model of the comet to create a three-dimensional appearance.

Awestruck in the valley of the comet

As jets spray dust and icy vapors in the distance, tall cliffs rise up on either side of the boulder-strewn valley which forms part of the neck of comet 67P/C-G. I combined two separate Rosetta photos to provide a more panoramic view. The picture spans 0.9 miles (1.5 km). Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

Suit up! We’re going for a hike across one of the starkest and most beautiful valleys in the solar system. The Rosetta spacecraft took this photo of the neck region of Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko on October 2 from a distance of only 11.8 miles (19 km). I can’t help but see it as an invitation to explore.

Imagine crunching through dust and pebbles as you pick your way along the boulder field. When you finally stop to rest and look up, craggy cliffs tower against a sky black as crows wings and crazy with stars. Then you notice the sparkles. They’re subtle like ice crystals catching sunlight on a bitter cold morning. And it dawns on you you’re seeing comet dust dancing in the sunlight as it slowly settles to the powdery ground beneath your feet.

Boulder Cheops, taken by Rosetta’s OSIRIS narrow-angle camera on September 19, 2014, from a distance of 17.7 miles (28.5 km). The boulder’s about 148 feet (45 m) across. Credits: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

Along another part of the comet’s neck, Rosetta’s narrow angle OSIRIS camera photographed the largest boulder – named Cheops – in a different rocky landscape. It reminded the Rosetta scientists of the famous pyramids at Giza, the largest of which was built as the tomb for the Pharoah Cheops. Spanning a little more than three school buses in length, the boulder rests on a rocky,dusty plain. Look closely and you’ll see what appears to be the same darker dust / rock fragments filling cracks in the bright boulder’s surface.

Wider context showing the boulder field with Cheops just below center. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

Boulders on the moon and other cratered asteroids, planets and moons are easy to explain as impact ejecta from meteorites and small asteroid impacts. But the origin of comet rocks isn’t so straightforward. Were they formed as exposed pieces of the comet’s crust as ices vaporized and the surface deflated or even collapsed? Or might they have tumbled down from the cliffs above?

Hopefully we’ll get an answer to their origin as the mission continues. This past week Rosetta has been orbiting 12.4 miles (20 km) from the comet, but the decision has now been made to dip down to just 6.2 miles (10 km) next Wednesday October 15. At that altitude, the spacecraft will orbit 67P/C-G about every 66 hours. It’ll also get an even sharper view of the Philae’s landing site in preparation for the November 11th touchdown.

Rosetta’s comet grows feathers – see it in 3D

Jets of gas and dust are seen escaping comet 67P/C-G on September 26 in this four-image mosaic. Click to enlarge. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

She’s gonna blow! These four separate images window-paned together were taken on September 26 by Rosetta as it orbited Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from a distance of 16 miles (26 km). They show jets of water vapor and dust erupting from several discrete locations beneath the surface along the neck region of the comet’s nucleus.

If you liked the first photo, you’ll go ga-ga for this 3D version created by Mattias Malmer. Grab your red-blue plastic glasses and place the red filter over the left eye and blue over the right. Malmer created the view by draping a navigation camera image over a 3D model of the comet and then photographing it from two slightly different perspectives. Click for large version. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM/processing by Mattias Malmer

The sun warms the comet’s coal-black surface, causing ices beneath to sublimate or change directly from solid to gas without becoming liquid. This is possible because of the near-zero atmospheric pressure at the comet. Pressure builds in the pockets of gas until they find escape through cracks or pores as plume-like jets. Comet dust born along with the gas fashions the coma and tail over time. Something similar happens when you shake up a bottle of champagne and then loosen the cork. Trapped carbon dioxide (what makes the “fizz”) blasts the cork across the room.

Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko turning into the light. Don’t forget to hit the ‘full screen’ button at lower right. (Mattias Malmer) 

If you liked the still images, get ready for even more thrilling views created by 3D technical director Mattias Malmer. He used the same draping technique and then animated the stills. Be sure to check out his blog when you get a chance.


Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko rotating in 3D (Mattias Malmer)


Heads up! (Mattias Malmer)

And now for the grand finale – what majesty!


3D rotation of Comet 67P/C-G with jets (Mattias Malmer)