Earth and Moon captured together in amazing new photo

Chang’e 5 took this splendid photo of Earth and Moon together while it passed over the lunar far side on October 28, 2014. The Moon reflects far less light than Earth and appears darker.  Click to grab a large version. Credit: CNSA / Xinhua News Agency

A friend alerted me to this wonderful photo of Earth and Moon in the same single image taken by China’s Chang’e 5 lunar test vehicle. The spacecraft is conducting an 8-day mission to the Moon and back to refine the technology needed for a planned sample return mission in 2017. Launched on October 23, this is China’s fourth volley to the Moon; the spacecraft will return to Earth on November 1 according to Xinhua News.

View of Earth taken by the Chang’e 5 test vehicle on October 28 after rounding the far side of the Moon. Australia is easy to see in the clearing. Credit: CNSA / Xinhua News Agency

As it swung high above the far side of the Moon – the hidden half of the lunar globe out of sight from Earth – the solar array monitoring camera on the craft snapped this incredible image. While not the first ever taken of the pair, it’s one of the best composed images and possibly the first to clearly feature the lunar far side along with Earth. You can easily see how much more cratered the Moon’s hidden hemisphere is. And that dark splotch? That’s Mare Moscoviense (Sea of Moscow), one of the very few dark maria or seas on the far side.

View of the Moon by Chang’e 5 on October 28 shows the dark lunar “sea” called Mare Marginis. This patch is visible along the western edge of the moon from Earth. Credit: CNSA / Xinhua News Agency

Chang’e 5 did not enter lunar orbit but kept its camera humming to shoot separate close-ups of Earth and Moon. Like seeing Earth and Moon from afar? Check these out:


Earth and Moon dance a pirouette in these images taken by the Jupiter-bound spacecraft Juno on Oct. 9, 2013

The European Space Agency’s Mars Express captured this image of Earth and the Moon on July 3, 2005 when it was 5 million miles ( 8 million km) away. Credit: ESA

Earth and Moon in 1992 as Galileo photographed the duo on its way to Jupiter. Credit: NASA

Earth is the brightest “star” in Mars’ western evening sky as seen and photographed by the Curiosity Rover on Jan. 31, 2014. Credit: NASA

A single frame from high-definition video of the full Earth over the lunar limb taken by Japan’s Kaguya spacecraft on April 6, 2008. Credit: JAXA/NHK

Earth and Moon from Mars, imaged by Mars Global Surveyor on May 8, 2003. Credit: NASA

Earth rises over the barren lunar landscape photographed by the Apollo 8 crew on December 24, 1968. Credit: NASA

Earth and Moon become a single dot in this photo taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft from a distance of 4 billion miles (6.4 billion km) on February 14, 1990. Credit: NASA/JPL

Found! Fresh moon crater from LADEE spacecraft impact

Before and after photos show the new crater blasted out by the impact of the LADEE spacecraft. It’s the white spot a short distance to the upper right of the prominent crater in the center and measures less than 10 feet (3-m) across.  Credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University

I’d love to see that ad on Craigslist. Using before and after photos taken by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), Mark Robinson, LROC principal investigator, discovered a tiny crater within one-fifth of a mile (300-m) of the predicted impact zone. And I do mean tiny. The impact of the refrigerator-sized spacecraft at the relatively leisurely speed of 3,800 miles an hour (1,699 meters per second) excavated a hole under 10 feet across or as big as your bathroom.

LRO close up photo of the LADEE impact site on the eastern rim of Sundman V crater. The bright area highlights what has changed between the time of the two images, specifically the impact point and the ejecta. The ejecta pattern spreads to the northwest, consistent with the direction the spacecraft was traveling when it smacked into the surface. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University

NASA’s LADEE or Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Explorer’s mission studied dust hovering in the Moon’s extremely rarefied atmosphere called the exosphere. Much of the dust sputters off the surface during meteorite impacts, but some may be lofted into the sky by electrostatic forces active when the sun rises along the day-night borderline called the terminator. As the probe used up the last of its fuel, engineers lowered its orbit to study the lunar environment in ever greater detail. Variations in lunar topography and gravity soon brought it crashing to the surface on April 17 this year on the farside of the Moon.

LADEE only had so much fuel to conduct operations at the moon. When that was used up, the mission was complete. The vending-machine-sized probe broke apart as it heated up upon impact. Credit: NASA Ames/Dana Berry

The small size of the LADEE crater relates to the relatively slow impact speed (meteorites strike at a much higher velocity) as well as the craft’s small size and low density. To find it, investigators had to develop special software that compared before and after images to find the slightest changes between them. The impact popped into view much the same way before and after images of the sky are compared to detect moving asteroids.

Despite the crater’s tiny dimension, the crashing spacecraft managed to eject a plume of bright lunar dust 656-984 feet (200-300 meters) from the impact site. Future astronauts will likely find metal shrapnel from the probe mingled with lunar dust downstream from the impact.

“I’m happy that the LROC team was able to confirm the LADEE impact point,” said Butler Hine, LADEE project manager at Ames Research Center in California. “It really helps the LADEE team to get closure and know exactly where the product of their hard work wound up.”

In a memorable mess of an impact that will remain visible for millions of years.

Moon bites sun, mankind cheers!

The sun sets while still in eclipse as seen from Duluth, Minn. Thursday evening October 23. Credit: Bob King

I hope you all got at least a glimpse at the partial solar eclipse this afternoon. The weather cleared off just in time here for a beautiful view from over Superior Bay in Duluth, Minn. As expected, many of us couldn’t take our eyes off the magnificent sunspot group.

Sometimes clouds can be your friend. Credit: Stuart McDaniel

Although we looked at the eclipse through the telescope and camera back, my friend and I agreed the best views were at 1x magnification using nothing more than mylar and welder’s glass. Both the nibbling moon and sunspots were easy to see, and without a frame around the scene, the Sun felt closer, more natural.  Because we watched from an open site on a bay, dappled sunlight on water added a nice touch.

Fr. Larry Regynski’s niece creates pinholes with her hand and uses it to project crescent suns on the wall.  Credit: Fr. Larry Regynski

65% of the Sun was covered for us, and while Sun brightness normally drops off near sunset, there was no question that everything around us looked dimmer than normal with half the Sun gone.

Here are a few photos to enjoy. If you took one you’d like to share, please e-mail it to me at rking@duluthnews.com and I’ll put it up on the blog.

Still keeping an eye on possible auroras tonight. Right now, all is quiet, but I suspect that big sunspot group sooner or later will crank up the heat.

Eclipse season is over now – the next of note for the Americas will be a total lunar eclipse on April 4th next year.

This is how the eclipse looked in a small 3.5-inch refracting telescope. Credit: Bob King

Amateur astronomer Mike Sangster holds up a photographic solar filter over the eclipsed sun Thursday. Credit: Bob King

Gorgeous! Dimmed by haze and high clouds, the eclipsed sun sets in the west Thursday evening. Credit: Mike Sangster

Me with my head stuck in a telescope … as usual. To observe and photograph the eclipse I used a 94mm refractor fitted with a photographic solar filter. Most exposures were shot at 1/4000-second at f/14. Credit: Mike Sangster

Sweet sunset shot in Owatonna, Minn. taken with a 210mm telephoto at ISO 100, f/18 and 1/4000-second. Credit: Gary Johnson

Mike Sangster crossed one hand over the over to create small gaps that acted as pinhole projectors. He managed 3 crescent suns on the side of his car. Credit: Bob King

Two crescent suns almost lost in the woods. Left: From Duluth’s Skyline Parkway near Bardon Peak from Art Johnston. Right: From the Pike Lake boat ramp taken by Guy Sander

Feel the bliss, don’t miss Thursday’s partial solar eclipse

The solar crescents show how much Sun will be covered at maximum for various locations across the U.S. and Canada during the October 23rd (Thursday) partial solar eclipse. Credit: Jay Anderson

Doing anything Thursday afternoon? Have a few minutes to spareThere’s a partial eclipse of the Sun visible across much of North America and of Mexico you might like to catch. For observers in the U.S. and Canadian West the whole event begins and ends in the afternoon before sunset. Those living east of the Great Plains will see the Sun set while still in eclipse.

During a solar eclipse, the orbiting Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, completely blocking the Sun from view as shown here. In Thursday’s eclipse, the moon will pass a little north of a line connecting the three orbs, leaving a portion of the Sun uncovered. To view a partial solar eclipse, a safe solar filter is necessary. Credit: Wikipedia

Solar eclipses occur when the Moon glides between the Earth and the Sun, temporarily blocking it from view. Total solar eclipses get most of the attention because the Earth- Moon-Sun alignment is perfect. Like a snug lid on a pot, the Moon blanks out the Sun completely to create a dramatic spectacle of a black, fire-rimmed disk set in a plush solar corona.

Partial eclipses happen because the Moon’s orbit is tipped a few degrees to the Sun-Earth line. Most months, it passes north or south of the Sun and misses it completely. But during a partial eclipse, the Moon’s close enough to that line to partially block the Sun from view. Unlike a total eclipse, all phases of a partial eclipse are unsafe to view unless you use a safe solar filter or view it indirectly via projection.

Map showing times and percentage of the Sun covered during Thursday’s partial solar eclipse. Times are Pacific Daylight – add 1 hour for MDT, 2 hours for CDT and 3 hours for EDT. Interpolate between the lines to find your approximate viewing time. The arc marked A shows where the eclipse begins at sunset; B = Maximum eclipse at sunset and C = Eclipse ends at sunset. Credit: NASA, F. Espenak,with additions by Bob King

As you can see from the map, nowhere will this eclipse be total. Maximum coverage will happen in Nunavut Territory in northern Canada where the musk oxen might catch sight of a fat solar crescent 81% covered by the moon at sunset. The farther north you live in the U.S. or Canada, the deeper the eclipse. Northern U.S. states will see around 60% covered compared to 40% in the deep south.

In Duluth, Minn. for example, the eclipse begins at 4:21 p.m., reaches a maximum of about 65% at 5:33 p.m. and continues into sunset at 6:06 p.m. Since the sun will be low in the western sky from many locations, be sure to get a spot with a wide open view in that direction.To find out times and coverage for your city, use these links:

* U.S. Cities
* Cities in Canada and Mexico 

Some of the different kinds of safe solar filters available. They work by reflecting or absorbing most of the light from the Sun, allowing only a fraction through to the eyes. NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN without one. Click photos for a supplier of eclipse glasses. Credit: Bob King

Solar filters come in a variety of styles from inexpensive eclipse glasses that use an optical polymer to glass welder’s filters to caps you place over the front end of a telescope. It’s important to use the correct kind – don’t stack a bunch of sunglasses and figure “it’ll do” or look through smoked glass. They still allow dangerous UV and infrared light to pass through and will mess up your retinas for life.

Because we’re on the heels of the eclipse, if you don’t already have a pair of eclipse glasses I recommend a #14 welder’s glass. It’s my favorite actually because it’s easy to stuff in a pocket and heavy-duty enough to take a few dings. You can pick one up for a few dollars at a welding supply shop. Only buy a #14 – lower numbers won’t cut it.

A piece of aluminum foil, a pin and a cardboard box are all you need to build a pinhole projector. The tiny hole creates a small image of the eclipsed Sun inside the darkened box which you place over your head. Remember to look at the projection of the sun on the inner wall of the box – not through the pinhole itself.

Projection provides a fine alternative to using a filter. You can mount a pair of binoculars (or small telescope) on a tripod and project the Sun’s image on a sheet of white paper or build your own pinhole projector using the instructions above.

You can mount binoculars on a tripod, cover one lens with a lenscap and project the sun’s image safely onto a sheet of white cardboard. Credit: Bob King

If leaves still cling to your trees this season, the narrow spaces between the leaves act like natural pinholes and will cast multiple images of the eclipsed Sun on the ground below.

You can even place one hand atop the other and let the sun shine through the gaps between your fingers to see the eclipse. Low tech as it gets, but works in a pinch.

Here are some other things to watch for during the eclipse:

* If you live where half or more of the sun will be covered, you may notice a change in the quality of daylight. To my eye, the light becomes “grayer”. What do you see?

* Telescope users will see the mountains and crater rims along the moon’s edge as tiny bumps and projections against the brilliant solar photosphere. You’ll also notice how much blacker moon is compared to sunspots. Guess what? We’ve got a huge sunspot out there right now – Region 2192. Perfect for comparison!

Partially eclipsed sun just before sunset seen from Island Lake north of Duluth in May 2012. Credit: Bob King

*  Those living where parts of the eclipse happen at sunset will get an extra special view of the sun with a big bite out of it right sitting atop the southwestern horizon.

I wish you excellent weather – good luck!

 

Earth and Mars, space pals forever

This single shot of Earth and Mars together was taken on May 24, 2014 with NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft as it orbited the moon. Click to see full, hi-res photo. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University

Yesterday we watched the total lunar eclipse from Mercury. Today, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) expands our gaze to encompass both Earth and Mars together in space.

LRO’s viewing post was none other than the moon located 240,000 miles from Earth. On May 24th, instead of staring down at the lunar surface, NASA engineers sent commands to the spacecraft to point its Narrow Angle Camera toward Earth. On that date the two worlds were in conjunction from LRO’s perspective.


Mars and Earth from lunar orbit

Mars was about 70 million miles away (112.5 million km) away at the time or 300 times farther away from the Moon than the Earth. That’s why it’s only a tiny dot in the sky.

Moon-facing hemisphere of Mars on May 8, 2014 seen from lunar orbit. Instruments on LRO sometimes use stars and planets for calibration or other special observations. During one of these off-Moon observations, LROC imaged Mars. The planet is so small in LRO’s camera it could only make out the two larger features shown above. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University

I know a commercial photographer who takes pictures of babies when they’re asleep. She has to invest a lot time into each of her photos, much of it spent waiting for the children to fall asleep! Likewise the LRO team. To make sure they got the timing and exposure right, the team practiced on Mars weeks in advance.

Seeing the two planets in the same frame seems to shrink the distance between them and tempt us to shove off from home on an exploratory visit.

The LRO folks put it this way:

“The juxtaposition of Earth and Mars seen from the Moon is a poignant reminder that the Moon would make a convenient waypoint for explorers bound for the fourth planet and beyond! In the near-future, the Moon could serve as a test-bed for construction and resource utilization technologies. Longer-range plans may include the Moon as a resource depot or base of operations for interplanetary activities.”

Ever seen a lunar eclipse from Mercury? Me neither … till now


Wednesday’s lunar eclipse photographed by NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury

As millions of us awoke at dawn and trundled outside to watch the total lunar eclipse this week another set of eyes was keeping tabs from afar. 66 million miles away, NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft turned its camera toward Earth to capture several images of the moon disappearing into our planet’s shadow. Laced together, they make for a brief but fascinating glimpse of planetary bodies in motion.

Two of the still images showing Earth and moon before and during Wednesday morning’s total eclipse. Credit: NASA

The animation was constructed from 31 images taken two minutes apart from 5:18 to 6:18 a.m. EDT. The images start just before the Moon entered the umbra, the darkest part of the Earth’s shadow.

“From Mercury, the Earth and Moon normally appear as if they were two very bright stars,” noted Hari Nair, a planetary scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, in Laurel, Md. “During a lunar eclipse, the Moon seems to disappear during its passage through the Earth’s shadow, as shown in the movie.”

MESSENGER photographed Earth and moon on May 6, 2010 from 114 million miles (183 million km) away. Credit: NASA

Because the moon is so much darker than Earth its brightness has been increased 25 times to show its disappearance more clearly. I’ve included another picture of the Earth and moon against the starry backdrop of deep space also photographed by MESSENGER. Sure puts things in perspective. While not as breathtaking as photos of Earth taken by the Apollo astronauts, seeing our tiny home floating in the void effectively communicates how improbable our existence is. Thank goodness life got a grip and kept it. After 3.5 billion years of evolution the double helix has proven itself a force with which to be reckoned.

The 133-mile-wide double ringed crater Vivaldi captured at sunrise. The low sun highlights valleys and chains of secondary impact craters radiating away from it. Credit: NASA

MESSENGER has been in orbit around Mercury since March 2011 studying the chemical composition of the surface, measuring planet’s magnetic field, mapping polar ices and of course taking pictures. Enjoy a few recent ones.

Hollows on the floor of an unnamed crater on Mercury. Hollows may be areas “eaten away” by the ceaseless bombardment of particles in the solar wind. Or they may form when heat from volcanic activity melts away softer rocks. No one knows for sure. Credit: NASA

Moon and illusion in the Hyades tonight

The waning gibbous moon moves across the Hyades star cluster tonight October 11. This map shows the view through binoculars around 10 p.m. CDT. Moon is to scale. Source: Stellarium

Now that the eclipse is behind us, the moon has trotted off to the east out of the limelight.

It’s in that lengthly phase called waning gibbous, a period of 6+ days between full moon and last quarter. Can I coax you out for another look?

Tonight the moon will cross the Hyades star cluster that forms the V-shaped face of Taurus the Bull. Merely having the moon in Taurus hints at how close we are to the start of winter. Two months hence, the Bull, along with Orion the Hunter, will dominate the southern sky at 10 o’clock.

Taurus the Bull from the 19th century star atlas Urania’s Mirror.

But tonight around 10, Taurus makes its appearance in the eastern sky. Because the moon is still fat and bright you’ll better appreciate its passage through the Hyades with binoculars. By happy circumstance, the entire cluster neatly fits into the field of view of most pairs.

Orange-red Aldebaran is Taurus’ brightest star and completes the cluster’s V with a flourish. Don’t be deceived. This star is an impostor that by chance lies in the same line of sight as the star cluster. The Hyades form a gravitationally bound group of stars 153 light years distant and were born from the same cloud of gas and dust 625 million years ago. Aldebaran? Only 65 light years away and as solitary as our sun.

The moon moves its own diameter every hour as it orbits the Earth. You can see that motion overnight tonight as the moon approaches and then conjuncts with Aldebaran tomorrow morning. The map shows the view from northern Minnesota / Wisconsin. Source: Stellarium

Over the course of the night, the moon will slowly work its way across the Bull’s face, occulting or covering a number of fainter cluster stars along the way. One such star is 63 Tauri shining at magnitude +5.6. A small telescope 4-inches or larger will show the moon creep up to the star and suddenly blank it from view around 10:10 p.m. Central Daylight Time. Depending on your location, the moon’s path across the Hyades will shift a little north or south, and you may see different stars occulted.

Aldebaran-Sun comparison. Aldebaran is an orange giant star 44 times the sun’s size. The sun will also puff out like Aldebaran several billion years in the future when it starts burning helium in its core as Aldebaran is today. Credit: Wikipedia

By 5 a.m. CDT tomorrow morning Oct. 12 the moon will be in conjunction with Aldebaran about 1º to its north. Here we see yet another of nature’s illusions. The moon not only outshines Aldebaran by 26,000 times, it’s huge in comparison. But make no mistake, Aldebaran’s the giant here. Next to it, the sun looks puny and faint.

With a diameter 44 times solar, Aldebaran’s searing orange photosphere would reach all the way to the planet Mercury if put in place of the sun and overall shine 500 times as bright.

Another noteworthy star to look for in your binoculars is the pair called Theta 1,2 Tauri. Both belong to the Hyades although small uncertainties in their distances make it unclear if they’re a physical double star or like Aldebaran, a chance alignment. Once the moon’s out of the way, this is a fun star to try and split with your naked eye. Like two tiny pearls in a starry brooch, they make for a pleasing sight.

Total lunar eclipse – what a beauty!

The moon just coming out of eclipse over Spring Lake north of Duluth, Minn. this morning October 8. Details: 200mm telephoto, ISO 800, 1 second exposure. Credit: Bob King

I hope your sky was clear for the total lunar eclipse. It sure wasn’t here. A big bank of clouds moved in before totality. I was shocked when I looked at the window to see a clear sky in the east and not a single star – or moon – in the west. That’s why man invented the car.

Moon around mid-totality with the planet Uranus (left) for company. Credit: Bob King

25 miles north of town the burnt orange moon slid out from under the clouds. It was already mid-eclipse, but no matter. I pulled over to the side of the road to enjoy the sight as twilight crept up from behind.

In binoculars Uranus was plain to see near the lower edge of the moon where the color was deep, rich and red. Up along the lunar topside the color graded to a pale straw yellow.

The full moon departs Earth’s shadow over a spruce bog tinged with fall color north of Duluth Wednesday morning around 7 a.m. Credit: Bob King

Clouds threatened again sending me fleeing to a lake shore and finally another roadside. Around 6:30 a.m. traffic picked up. Everyone driving south or west on their way to work and school got the astronomical treat of their life – the moon emerging from total eclipse right out the front windshield. Sweet!

The partially eclipsed moon glows against Earth’s setting shadow (the purple band) this morning. Full moons are directly opposite the sun, setting around sunrise and rising at sunset. When you look at the moon during eclipse you’re staring directly down the shadow cone cast by the planet. Credit: Bob King

For a total lunar eclipse to happen, the moon must be full and lie in the same plane as Earth’s orbit. Since the moon’s orbit is tilted 5°, it normally misses Earth’s shadow at full, passing a few degrees above or below it.

The moon partially covered in Earth’s shadow seen from Dayton, Ohio this morning. At the moon’s distance, the planet’s shadow is surprisingly small – only big enough to cover the Seven Sisters (Pleiades) star cluster. Credit: John Chumack

The full moon orbits behind the Earth opposite the sun; as the sun rises the moon sets. At the moon’s distance of 240,000 miles, the Earth’s shadow, both penumbra and umbra, spans a little more than 2° or about the size of the Pleiades star cluster.

Seems pretty small, doesn’t it?

But viewed from the ground, Earth’s shadow reaches from one end of the western horizon to the other. In the evening, the shadow is equally broad but appears in the eastern sky. This morning we had the unique opportunity to see the partially eclipsed moon in Earth’s distant shadow at the same time as seeing the much bigger near-shadow of the planet. Wild thought.

Full sequence of this morning’s total lunar eclipse. Details: Canon 6D camera, 80mm refractor, 2-second exposure at ISO 6400. Credit: John Chumack

Lunar eclipse photo tips, times, live streams

On Wednesday morning October 8, Earth’s shadow will nibble away at the moon during the wee hours eclipsing it for the second time this year. Credit: Bob King

Ready for Wednesday’s morning lunar eclipse? Some people – and I envy them at times – treat an eclipse more casually. They enjoy the show with no desire to set up a telescope or take a photo. For those of us can’t part with our cameras, here’s a little guide to help you get better pictures.

As a photographer, I’m compelled to shoot at least a few photos of an event as rare as a total eclipse. Someday I’ll let it all go and just kick back in a lawn chair as the shutters clack around me. But until then the camera will be at my side.

From Philadelphia and other eastern U.S. cities the partial phases of the eclipse will take place with the moon well up in the western sky. By the start of totality, the moon will have dropped to within about 6º of the horizon as shown here. Source: Stellarium

If you’re also into photography and would like to grab a few shots, here are a few tips on what equipment you’ll need and camera settings. This eclipse offers unique opportunities especially for the eastern half of the country because the eclipsed moon will be low in the western sky near the start of and during morning twilight.

In the Midwest at the start of the hour-long totality, the red moon will be about 20º (two fists) above the western horizon. From the East Coast the moon slips into total eclipse only a half hour before sunrise 6-7º high. So if you live in the eastern half of the country, find a site with a good view to the west.

Seen from Denver, total eclipse begins with the moon 30º high (three fists). All of totality and all partial phases of the eclipse will be visible from western Midwest west to Hawaii and Alaska. Source: Stellarium

A low moon means easier framing with a pleasing foreground like a grove of fall trees, a church or distant line of mountain peaks. And the lower it drops, the longer the telephoto lens you can use to enlarge the moon relative to the foreground. When the moon is high in the sky it’s more difficult to find a suitable foreground.

Sometimes it’s nice to have a foreground object to add character to your eclipse photos. Last April’s totally eclipsed moon joins the old Central High School clock tower in downtown Duluth, Minn. Mars at upper right. Details: 80mm lens, f/5, 1.6-second exposure at ISO 400 on a tripod. Credit: Bob King

As the scene brightens during twilight, balancing the light of the moon, your photos will get even more interesting. Textures and details in foreground objects will stand out instead of appearing as silhouettes.

Use the table below to plan when to watch depending on your time zone. The blanks mean the moon will have set by the time of the event.

Eclipse Events                         EDT                 CDT                MDT                 PDT

Penumbra first visible 4:45 a.m. 3:45 a.m. 2:45 a.m. 1:45 a.m.
Partial eclipse begins 5:15 a.m. 4:15 a.m. 3:15 a.m. 2:15 a.m.
Total eclipse begins 6:25 a.m. 5:25 a.m. 4:25 a.m. 3:25 a.m.
Mid-eclipse 6:55 a.m. 5:55 a.m. 4:55 a.m. 3:55 a.m.
Total eclipse ends 7:24 a.m. 6:24 a.m. 5:24 a.m. 4:24 a.m.
Partial eclipse ends ——— 7:34 a.m. 6:34 a.m. 5:34 a.m.
Penumbra last visible ——— ——— 7:05 a.m. 6:05 a.m.

Exposures and lens settings

Partial phase during the April 14-15 eclipse this year. Details: Telescope (=1300mm telephoto lens) at f/11, 1/250 second at ISO 400. Credit: Bob King

The full moon and even the partially eclipsed moon (up to about half) are so bright you can shot a handheld photo without resorting to a tripod. Exposures at ISO 400 are in the neighborhood of f/8 at 1/250-1/500 second. Only thing is, all you’ll get is the moon surrounded by blackness. These exposures are so brief almost nothing will show in your foreground except for possibly moonlit clouds. That’s usually fine for the early partial phases.

To capture the encroaching shadow during partial phases you’ll need to overexpose the sunlit part of the moon. Details: f/11, 2-second exposure at ISO 400. Credit: Bob King

Once the moon is more than half smothered in shadow, open up the lens to a wider setting – f/2.8 to f/4 – or increase the exposure.

Let the back of the camera be your guide. If the images look too bright, dial back. If too dim, increase exposure or open the lens to a wider aperture.

While you can continue to shoot the partially eclipsed moon at f/8 from 1/30-1/125 second, you’ll miss the best part – the portion filling up with Earth’s red shadow. To capture that, break out the tripod, open your lens all the way up – f/2.8-f/4 – and expose at ISO 400 between 1/4 and 1 second. You can also shoot at ISO 800 and cut those times in half, important if you’re using a longish telephoto lens. Remember, Earth’s rotation means the moon’s on the move and will show trailing if you expose longer than a few seconds.

Wide scene from April’s total eclipse with Spica below the moon and Mars to the right. Details: 24mm lens at f/2.8, 8-second exposure at ISO 800. The moon was deliberately overexposed to show it in a field of stars. You can vary the exposure to your taste but the shorter it is,  the fewer stars. Longer exposures will show trailing. Credit: Bob King

During totality, expose anywhere from 1/2-5 seconds at f/2.8-4.5 at ISO 400. Let’s assume you want to include both a foreground and stars in the picture using a standard or wide angle lens. Dial up to ISO 800 with you lens wide open and exposure of 6-10 seconds. On the 6-second end you’ll catch only the brightest stars but the moon won’t show trailing; on the longer end you’ll get lots more stars with some overexposure of the eclipsed moon.

The partial lunar eclipse of June 4, 2012, pre-dawn at moonset, from home in southern Alberta. This is a single exposure with the Canon 60Da and 18-200mm Sigma lens at 115mm and at f/5.6 for 0.4 sec at ISO 160. Copyright: Alan Dyer

Where parts of the eclipse happen in twilight, even mobile phones may suffice. There should be enough light to capture a pretty scene with the moon just emerging from total eclipse and during the ensuing partial phases.

If you’re clouded out or on the wrong side of the planet for the eclipse, you can catch live webcasts from the following sites:

* Gianluca Masi’s Virtual Telescope
* Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles
* SLOOH 

Clear skies!

Anticipating Wednesday’s awesome lunar eclipse

Watch for a ruddy moon in Pisces the Fish during the total lunar eclipse which happens Wednesday morning October 8th. The moon’s color can range from dark brown to coppery red depending on the transparency of the Earth’s atmosphere as described below. This map shows the view at the start of total eclipse as seen from the Midwest. Source: Stellarium

If you missed last April’s total lunar eclipse because of weather or commitments, you’ve got a second chance Wednesday morning October 8th. This is the final total lunar eclipse of 2014 and the second of four in a series called a tetrad – four consecutive total eclipses occurring at approximately six month intervals this year and next.

On Wednesday morning October 8, the moon will slide into Earth’s shadow and we’ll be treated to a total lunar eclipse. The outer shadow or penumbra only lightly shades the moon; for most of us the eclipse begins when the moon touches the inner, darker shadow called the umbra. Times are shown for each stage of the eclipse. Add one hour for EDT, subtract one hour for MDT and two hours for PDT. Credit: NASA / F. Espenak with additions by Bob King

“The most unique thing about the 2014-2015 tetrad is that all of them are visible for all or parts of the USA,” says longtime NASA eclipse expert Fred Espenak.

This eclipse happens during the early morning hours, so North American skywatchers will need to remember to set their alarm clocks. In the Midwest, partial eclipse begins at 4:15 a.m., when the moon’s eastern limb eases into Earth’s umbral shadow.

World map showing where the eclipse will be visible. Most of North America and much of Asia and Australia will see the event. Those living in the western half of the U.S. will see the eclipse from beginning to end. Farther east, the partially eclipsed moon sets at sunrise. Credit: NASA / F. Espenak

Earth’s shadow is composed of two nested components – the inner umbra, where the Earth completely blocks the sun from view, and an outer penumbra, where the planet only partially blocks the sun. Because the penumbra is a mix of shadow and sunlight, it’s nowhere near as dark as the umbra.

Animation showing the moon’s passage through the penumbra and umbra during the upcoming total eclipse. Credit: Tom Ruen

A lunar eclipse is divided into stages beginning with the moon’s entry into the penumbra. Most of us won’t notice any shading on the moon until it’s well inside the outer shadow about a half hour before partial eclipse begins. Look for a subtle darkening along its eastern edge.

During a lunar eclipse, the sun, Earth and moon are neatly lined up in space. For a few hours, the orbiting moon passes through Earth’s shadow and we experience a lunar eclipse. Credit: Starry Night

Because the Earth is a solid object, it casts a shadow in sunlight just like you and I. A lunar eclipse occurs when the sun, Earth and moon are precisely lined up in a row at the time of full moon, and the moon moves into Earth’s shadow.

Although the moon’s doing all the moving, it looks like the shadow is encroaching on the moon, slowly devouring it nibble by nibble. When the moon’s about half covered you’ll notice that the shadowed half is deep red or orange.

Artist view of Earth totally eclipsing the sun as viewed from the moon. Low angled sunlight filtered by our atmosphere is reddened in exactly the same way a setting sun is reddened. That red light bathes the moon’s surface which reflects a bit of it back toward Earth, giving us a red moon during totality.

Sunlight filtered and bent by Earth’s atmosphere spills into the umbral shadow and colors the moon a coppery red, burnt orange or rust. You can picture why this happens by pretending you’re standing on the moon looking back at Earth during total eclipse.

From your new perspective, the Earth passes in front of the sun, ringed by a glowing, red-orange atmosphere. Our atmosphere bends or refracts the light from all the sunrises and sunsets around the planet’s circumference into the umbra, adding color to the moon.

Depending on the amount of suspended particles called aerosols in Earth’s atmosphere at the time, the moon’s disk can glow a bright copper orange to deep brown-black. The more particles and haze, the greater the light absorption and darker the moon.

For the East Coast, totality begins during bright twilight with the moon low in the western sky. Skywatchers in the central U.S. will see all of totality and most of the final partial phases before moonset. If you live in the western U.S. you’ll get to watch the whole shebang in a dark sky.

Mid-eclipse is when the moon is deepest in Earth’s shadow. Since the top or northern end of the moon is closer to the shadow’s edge, it should appear noticeably lighter than the bottom half, which lies closer to the center.

The moon in mid-eclipse during the last total eclipse on April 14-15, 2014. You’ll notice a lot of variation of light and color across the disk. Credit: Bob King

After mid-eclipse, the moon slowly exits the Earth’s shadow and performs the whole show in reverse, transitioning back to partial eclipse and finally exiting the penumbra.

Besides the pleasure of seeing moon change color like a quickie version of fall, watch for the sky to darken as totality approaches. Eclipses begin with the sky flooded in bright moonlight nearly barren of stars. During totality, all the stars come back in a most breathtaking way. Be sure to sweep your gaze east to enjoy great views of the winter constellations including Orion.

A rare treat greets anyone with a pair of binoculars during next Wednesday morning’s total eclipse. The planet Uranus will sit a little more than one moon diameter to its southeast during totality. This view shows the scene from the U.S. Upper Midwest at 5;30 a.m. Source: Stellarium

By good fortune, the eclipsed moon will lie only about 1/2° west of the planet Uranus which should be easy to spot in binoculars during the hour of totality. Speaking of which, binoculars are a great way to enjoy the eclipsed moon. Somehow they give it a more three-dimensional look. Colors are richer and you’ll see the lunar disk suspended among the stars, a rare sight.

For your latest forecast, click HERE. I’ll have more information for you early next week including links for watching the eclipse on the web and photo tips. Stay tuned!